This study emerged from a search for effective ways to incorporate mathematics/pāngaru into our Early Childhood Education (ECE) programme. Optimising mathematics learning outcomes in ECE requires using Te Whāriki as a curriculum base (Ministry of Education, MoE, 1996). While this delivers broad expectations that children will grow in familiarity with number and mathematics concepts, it doesn’t prescribe actual teacher practice. Looking at the literature in New Zealand and internationally reveals a number of viewpoints on delivering positive mathematics outcomes. This paper will examine strategies for increasing mathematics learning in a holistic way include focusing on the teacher’s role, the child, the environment and resources.